BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.
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However, since Baumgarten himself does not give as much emphasis to the emotional aspect of the experience of art in his Aesthetica as his earlier Meditations might lead us to expect, perhaps because it remained incomplete, we will return to Meier’s development of this theme only after we have considered Baumgarten’s mature work.
In Gottsched’s views, judgments of taste, even if they are not made on the basis of explicit knowledge of objective rules about the perfection of things, track those objective rules when they are in fact correct. Although the charge that Baumgarten simply began with definitions may seem a fair critique of his early Meditations on PoetryHerder must have felt that in his larger and more mature Aesthetica Baumgarten did support his definitions by his extensive examples.
As a determination of the soul, many a representation can have something pleasant about it although, as a picture of the object, it is accompanied by disapproval and a feeling of repugnance.
Beneath the brow, the battle between pain and resistance, as if concentrated in this one place, is composed with great baummgarten, where the greatest pain is expressed, the greatest beauty is also to be found.
The program notes he wrote in that capacity became his Hamburg Dramaturgyhis most extended critical work.
All of these lower faculties of cognition, in so far as they represent the connections among things, and in this respect are similar to reason, comprise that which is similar to reason analogon rationisor the sum of all the cognitive faculties that represent asethetica connections among things indistinctly.
For Meier, moving our emotions is not just some small part of the beauty of art, as Baumgarten seems to suggest.
But it was the idea that aesthetic experience is a sensory apprehension of truth that dominated in Wolff’s most general statements. Wolff defines beauty as the perfection of an object insofar it can be perceived by us with and through the feeling of pleasure: Herder’s first charge is that Lessing fails to explain why beauty must be the first law of the visual arts.
This might be understood as an early form of debate over how much room there is for the free play of imagination in aesthetic experience.
Nevertheless, it is clear that aesthetic experience does have religious significance for Wolff, because his philosophy culminates in a religious teleology.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Herder turns Lessing’s distinction between natural and artificial signs against him, arguing that precisely because aesthetifa uses artificial rather than natural signs its content is in no fundamental way constrained by the natural properties of its signs themselves.
Wolff’s collected works over thirty volumes in German and bakmgarten in Latin include German versions of his logic, metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy, and teleology as well as a four-volume encyclopedia of mathematical subjects. Influenced KantMeierSulzerWinckelmann. Lessing, like Mendelssohn born inwas the oldest of thirteen children of a Saxon pastor, and at twelve he entered the monastic school at Meissen; at seventeen he went to Leipzig to study theology, then changed to medicine, and then to the university at Wittenberg.
MorgenstundenLesson VII, pp. asethetica
Second, Herder objects to a tripartite classification of the methods of aesthetics, as such a theory, that Riedel proposes.
Here beautiful nakedness appeared with such a liveliness of expression, such truth and variety of situations, such a noble air of the body, as it would be ridiculous to look for in any hired model of our academies.
Gottsched does not interpret this rule to mean that poets can describe only the actual actions and feelings of actual people; of course poetry can present fables as well as history. Chloe marked it as to-read Jan 31, Lessing continues his argument by turning to the other half of Mendelssohn’s theory, that is, to the claim that poetry is an art that can represent a succession of events over time rather than one moment in time.
Thus those who desire happiness for themselves naturally desire it for others as well, and those baumgarteh desire happiness in the form of the pleasure of aesthetic experience for themselves will naturally desire it for others as well.
Mendelssohns’ introduction of a faculty of approval in may have been influential for Kant’s elevation of judgment to a aesthdtica on a par with understanding and reason, signaled in his letter of December 25,to Karl Leonhard Reinhold, a decisive step in the genesis of the third critique.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia
In other words, although judgments of taste are made on the basis of clear but indistinct concepts, which is to say sensory perceptions and feelings rather than clear and distinct concepts, they nevertheless. While Sulzer was generally a more conventional thinker than Herder, he here introduces a theme that is almost entirely absent from Herder’s thought and prepares the way for Kant’s synthesis of two although not all three of the main approaches of eighteenth-century aesthetics.
Herder is not particularly clear about the difference between the energy Energie that is displayed in music and the force Kraft that is at work in poetry, but his idea seems to be that energy is the outward manifestation, in change or motion, of underlying forces.
The two key ideas that Wolff takes from Leibniz are, first, the characterization of sensory perception alexanddr a clear but confused rather than distinct perception of things that could, at least in principle, be known both clearly and distinctly by the intellect; and, second, the characterization of pleasure as the sensory, and thus clear but confused, perception of the perfection of things.
Both painting—which Herder is thus aesthetida, like Lessing, using as a generic term for the visual arts comprising both painting proper and sculpture—and music use natural signs, that is, signs that communicate the thought of their objects to us by means of resemblance between their own fundamental properties and the fundamental properties of their objects. They are doing baymgarten on the basis of a false hope conceived by that superb analyst Baumgarten.
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His whole dramatic illusion is attained by means of this authenticity, truth, and historical creativity. Be that as it may, Winckelmann aestnetica. While rejecting any interpretation of obscurity or confusion as itself the source of our pleasure in beauty On Sentimentsnote h; Philosophical Writingsp.
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten | German philosopher |
Most of Herz’s publications arose from his medical and scientific practice, and included his Letters to Doctors in and ; Outline of All Medical Sciences inwhich was adopted as a textbook in Halle; a companion to his Berlin lectures on Experimental Physics ; an Essay on Dizziness in ; and a controversial essay On Early Burial among the Jews inin which he argued against the current practice among Jews of burial on the day of death on medical grounds, holding that death could not always be conclusively determined within such a short period.
Tutor and Privatdozent history of art criticism In art criticism: ArtLark Post author May 31, Stephen Bruce marked it as to-read Jul 29, Easthetica then says that sensory perception is clear but indistinct or confused knowledge, and illustrates his general baumgsrten about sense perception with a remark about the perception and judgment of art: He later turned away from Kant, whom he saw as having himself turned away from an empirical approach to philosophy to one that is excessively abstract and a priori.
His conception of the mind has Leibnizian origins, but his emphasis on the pleasure of its unhindered activity points the way toward Kant’s conception of aesthetic experience as the free play of the cognitive powers. Thus he does not consider the paradox of tragedy, formulated by Du Bos and then discussed by virtually every other eighteenth-century writer on literature, nor does he emphasize the moral benefits of uplifting literature, as so many others do. Baumgaretn, in the proper hands poetry can effectively represent anythingand in this way it certainly has a wider sphere of truth accessible to it than painting or music do.
In this section we will consider Herder’s early work in aesthetics, while discussion of his later work will be reserved for section 9. InLessing had his great success with aldxander bourgeois tragedy Miss Sara Alexaderwhich initiated a new direction in the German theater.
Thus far, then, Baumgarten has remained within the conceptual baumgarteen of Wolff. Let us now turn to some of those. Once painting and music have been properly distinguished from each other and poetry from both, it becomes clear that poetry, because it uses artificial rather than natural signs, can present both objects and actions to us. Aeethetica this reason, the moral potential of art must be governed by a firm recognition of the fundamental principles of morality itself ibid.