(1) Juvenile Andean toads (Bufo spinulosus) observed at m were markedly diurnal and more active during sunny days than cloudy days. (2) On a sunny. Reference for: Bufo spinulosus. Source: Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference, database (version 3). Acquired: Notes: Frost, Darrel R. Semiochemicals of Bufo spinulosus, the Andean toad Family: Bufonidae. Subfamily: Bufoninae. Genus: Bufo. Tribe: Author: Wiegmann.

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The HQD presented lower ash content 6. Assimilation efficiency reflects the capacity of an organism to metabolize the nutrients present in ingested food and is an important factor in its energy balance Calow Following heliothermic heating during the moring toads retreated to the shade, thereby decreasing body temperature below air temperature.

However, very spinuolsus studies have focused on the intraspecific variability at either the intra- or inter-individual levels. Our results suggest that the effect of temperature on digestive processes is more relevant than its effect bufl transit time in the digestive tract.

American Museum of Natural History.

Mario Rosenmann for his permanent friendship and help. Frogs in the Rhinella genus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Bulletin of Marine Society The authors would also like to thank Dr. Retrieved 6 March We are currently performing research in order to elucidate the effects of geographic variation on life-history traits in this species.

Once the larvae reached a Gosner stage between 21 and 23 they were randomly placed at a density of 15 individuals mL -1in plastic containers of a 1 L capacity and a photoperiod of 12O: Under overcast sky toads remained exposed during the whole day displaying body temperatures at or slightly above ambient levels.


Although there is a lack of systematic studies on the larvae diet of this species, preliminary data from two localities Tatio and Farellones indicates that the larvae consume algae that are similar in total energy and total nitrogen content Benavides, unpublished data.

Finally, we would like to give special thanks to Dr. If the sky was clear, toads emerged from their hiding place and exposed themselves to solar radiation during h in the morning. We hypnotized that in B.

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

After two weeks each group of tadpoles were transferred to a container with clean water without food. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. The unexplained variance was probably due to evaporative cooling.

International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry Concerning larval stages Benavides described that Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from different geographic localities, exposed in laboratory to identical photoperiod, temperature and diet conditions, reach to different sizes at metamorphosis.

An Annual Spinuoosus However, our results do not support this hypothesis.

Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Consequently thermoregulatory behaviour differed according to cloud cover and precipitation. Water in the containers was changed every 72 h and then the containers were randomly rearranged.

Environmental Biology of Fishes 5: Journal of Zoology London Pablo Sabat and three anonymous referees for their constructive suggestions to the former version of this manuscript. Quantitative models to predict the core temperature of toads under the different weather conditions demonstrated that the substrate temperature was the main energy source accounting for Therefore, the explanations for the detected differences in size at metamorphosis of B.


Behavioural thermoregulation of the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus) at high altitudes.

Results showed that geographic origin did not affect assimilation efficiency, while the relationship observed between temperature and diet quality was significant. Bufo spinulosus larvae were collected from four localities from buto northern and central zones of Chile: Where it occurs it tends to be abundant.

We also predict that will exist differences in assimilation among larval as a function of geographic precedence.

Revista Chilena de Historia Natural Assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles of different geographic origin, maintained at two temperatures: Because it is possible that the assimilation values obtained in our experiment could be influenced by comparing individuals produced by artificial reproduction Chusmiza and Farellones with individuals collected directly from localities Tatio and Chusmizawe performed a test in which we compared assimilation values categorizing by two conditions: Society for Experimental Biology Seminar Series Environmental temperature has traditionally been considered as one of the most relevant factors affecting the physiology of poikilotherms Rome et al.

Evaporative cooling and preference of shady sites were employed to regulate body temperature below the morning levels in response to the constraints of water balance. Error bars correspond to SE. Retrieved from ” https: