Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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The other two-thirds however went through a procedure where a slightly embarrassed seeming and hesitant experimenter asked them for a favour.

Cognitive Dissonance

They were urged to cooperate in these interviews by being completely and honest. A sheet of paper headed “For Group B” was shown by the experimenter to the subject which outlined a role this associate was expected to perform in conveying carlsith for the experimental tasks. Many people seem able to cope with considerable dissonance fdstinger not experience the tensions the theory predicts. It has the advantage of being testable by scientific means i.

These S s were hired for twenty dollars to do the same thing.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory | Simply Psychology

Most S s responded by saying something like “Oh, no, it’s really very interesting. European Journal of Social Psychology. You can use it freely with some kind of linkand we’re also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.

If we put effort into a task which we have chosen to carry out, and the task turns out badly, we experience dissonance. Almost all frstinger the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the confederate that the boring festihger would be fun. All experimental S s in both One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions were asked, after this explanation, to return the money they had [p.


Add to my courses. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52 3 The mean ratings for the One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions, averaging the ratings of the two independent raters, are presented in Table 2.

The results showed a significant difference between the groups. Findings Participants in the high-dissonance condition spread apart the alternatives significantly more than did the participants in the other two conditions. Method Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. A Theory of cognitive dissonance.

The content of what the S said after the girl made the above-mentioned remark. We mentioned in the introduction that Janis and King ; in explaining their findings, proposed an explanation in terms of the self-convincing effect of mental rehearsal [p.

All S s, without exception, were quite willing to return the money.

Why this might have been the case is, of course, not immediately apparent. These S s were treated identically in all respects to the S s in the experimental conditions, except that they were never asked to, and never did, tell the waiting girl that the experimental tasks were enjoyable and lots of fun.

It focuses on the goal of altering an individual’s attitude through persuasion and authority. In summary, this study concluded that if an individual performs an action that goes against what they initially believe, the belief will typically change. These results are the ones most directly relevant to carlemith specific dissonance which we experimentally created It will be recalled that the tasks were purposely arranged to be rather boring and monotonous.

Whilst each student was performing these tasks an experimenter was present in the room with a stop watch and a pad upon which notes were made.

Cognitive dissonance

Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. The fee was paid and a receipt was signed by the subject. Is it a perception as ‘cognitive’ suggestsor a feeling, or a feeling about a perception? Rating scale 0 to The content of what the S said before the girl made the remark that her friend told her it was boring. Aronson’s Revision of the idea of dissonance as an inconsistency between a person’s self-concept and a cognition about their behavior makes it seem likely that dissonance is really nothing more than guilt.


This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency. Leave this field blank: If a person is induced to do or say something which is contrary to his private opinion, there will be a tendency for him to change his opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has done or said.

This was rated in the same way as for the content before the remark. In all conditions, they then heard a very boring discussion about sex in lower animals. In this way, he would be decreasing the importance of the dissonant cognition smoking is bad for one’s health. Ashmore and Collins conducted an experiment called “Studies in Forced Compliance: Three other participants declined the offer and another one, though he gave the girl a positive briefing, he asked for the girl’s number afterwards so he can, according to him, explain to her further what the study is about.

The 71 subjects were informed that the experiment focuses on the “Measures of Performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, Certainly, the more interesting and enjoyable they felt the tasks were, the greater would be their desire to participate in a similar experiment.

The greater the reward offered beyond what was necessary to elicit the behavior the smaller was the effect.