participei de vários projetos para editora Moderna, Ática, Saraiva, Spione e Ftd Biologia, Ciências, Geografia, História e ilustrações infantis para livro. Amabis & Martho (), for instance, clearly presents the idea of evolution as an .. AMABIS, J. M.; MARTHO, G. R. Fundamentos de Biologia Moderna (2nd ed.). P. A abordagem da relatividade restrita em livros didáticos do ensino médio. AMABIS, J.M.; MARTHO, G.R. Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna. livro/58ra/JNIC/RESUMOS/resumo_html>.
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The complexity discerned by the authors in the problem of defining life reflects itself in a difficulty to address it. Therefore, the results reported in this paper should be regarded boilogia partial. Five books presented lists of properties to differentiate living from non-living beings. Therefore, it should be regarded as a positive aspect that the biology textbooks we examined here, albeit recognizing the difficulties involved in defining life, do not avoid the discussion about how one can characterize living beings, differentiating them from inanimate matter.
It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings. Skip to main content. Noderna to the nature of the life definition s presented if there is any: In these sections, the question of the evolution of processes that would make life possible is raised, e.
This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization. Life concept explicitly situated in a biological paradigm. The treatment of this problem revolves around the possibilities of an origin by divine creation, or chemical evolution, or in some extraterrestrial place. Does the textbook discuss the problem of defining life?
Rather, it is possible to explain the characteristic coexistence of that list of symptoms of life on the grounds of some set of causes. The theory of autopoiesis may also be used as a basis for a discussion of life concepts in high school, when issues such as the origins of life and cellular metabolism are dealt with.
Some authors explicitly state the difficulty of defining life: The Philosophy of Artificial Life. On some theoretical-grounds for an organism-centered biology: Environmental Causes in Ontogeny.
We have already analyzed 8 from a total sample of 20 books. The Ontogeny of Information 2nd Ed. It is enough to say that they are all beings in Nature which present a series of biologiz characteristics This distinction becomes difficult, however, when we consider equivocal cases such as viruses, viroids, prions, or a biochemical soup of RNA fragments in a laboratory.
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Moreover, it is even more pleasing to notice that some books explicitly deal with the problem of defining life. Set of properties chosen under the light of an implicit theoretical paradigmatic justification.
The books were selected by combining the results of two surveys: The analysis of the textbooks was performed by applying a standard protocol, in order to guarantee a standardized appraisal of how the textbooks dealt with the problem of defining life and life concepts Figure 1. To put it differently, it is the case of trying to find a list of sufficient and necessary properties for a system to be characterized as living, with no theoretical paradigmatic justification for the choice of properties.
As a paradigmatic view of definitions releases us from the requirement of listing necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying in an essential and definitive way what are the phenomena that fall in a certain class, it makes it possible to clearly delimit, based on an precise theoretical justification, what are the phenomena in the domain of a given science.
Los conceptos estruturales en el aprendizaje por investigacion. Emmechefor instance, does not consider viruses as borderline cases, but as pathological forms of life, a kind of ultimate parasites, as they presuppose in the functional and evolutionary sense the existence fundamfntos living cells.
Even though this idea has been criticized in several works about the nature of evolution, it remains in biology textbooks, even in higher education. We emphasized how the search for similar features in biological processes and common patterns in the diversity of living ambais, which is an inevitable part of any attempt to define life, makes a more integrated approach to biological knowledge possible.
The idea that a discussion of life concepts might contribute to biology teaching incited us to pursue new research questions: Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the phenomenon of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank.
Due to a mistake in the post-translational modification of this protein, a non-functional version is produced, the prion protein.
Ultimate Reality and Meaning 20 4: Organicismo, emergentismo e ensino de biologia, in: The finding that two books address the problem of defining life in definite paradigmatic contexts is also very interesting. This argument is not sufficient, however, for avoiding a violation of the Cell Theory by viruses, as this theory states that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living beings, and this does not hold in the case of viruses, no matter whether they are strictly dependent on cells or not.
We usually think of life as both form and matter — something with both informational-organizational and material-physical aspects —, but this understanding of life puts too much emphasis on the informational aspect cf. From a definition of death as the irreversible process of losing the highly organized activity that characterizes life, they discuss the definition of life itself.
It is not that there would be any problem in searching for a unity in the diversity of life.
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Biologia Molecular, Citologia e Histologia. What is the list of properties presented by the textbook if there is any? When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of fjndamentos definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause.
The Great Chain of Being.
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The definition of life proposed is limited to a list of properties, seeking mqrtho characterize what a living being essentially is and what a non-living being essentially is essentialist view.
Given that these molecules rule almost all activities of the cell, the nucleus plays the role of an indirect controller of the cellular metabolism. This passage suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings. Or, to put it differently, a characterization of life from its counter- example, death.
Only three books include a specific chapter or section about this issue Figure 2. Prions, by their turn, can hardly be conceived as living, since they are nothing but an boologia version of a functional protein expressed in neurons. Thus, when studying, we should be aware of the fact that the statements, generally speaking, refer to what is more frequent, to what happens in the majority of the cases or individuals.